美国20世纪最伟大的100篇演讲(音频+文本)

官网:https://www.americanrhetoric.com/

这是由100多位美国专家根据社会、政治影响以及文字的优美程度评选出的美国20世纪最伟大的100大经典演讲。

黑人民权运动领袖马丁路德·金的出色演讲《我有一个梦》,当之无愧的入选为最伟大的演讲之首,与那场浩浩荡荡的民权运动一起铭记入史册。马丁路德·金的演讲造诣十分高,通篇绝无错漏,善于运用循序渐进的排比句。不像其他民权领袖,马丁路德·金更善于运用情感而不激进,他的个人魅力和亲和力更能争取更广泛的中间团体的支持(如女权运动组织,宗教团体,自由主义者等)。马丁路德·金同时入选100强的演讲还包括《攀越巅峰》和反对越战的《打破沉默》。马丁路德·金的演讲,不论是风格还是遣词造句,不论是语调还是情感运用,方方面面都值得学习和借鉴。

约翰·肯尼迪的《总统就职演说》紧随其后坐亚望冠。(我们也许更了解肯尼迪总统遇刺而不是肯尼迪总统本人)在大多数美国人心目中,肯尼迪总统的地位极高。肯尼迪总统正直,睿智,俊俏而有活力,他是一个天生的的领导,有一种使大家都愿意跟随他的神奇魅力。肯尼迪29岁当选参议员,并在其后的总统大选中击败当时已经两任副总统的民主党候选人尼克松,当选为美国史上最年轻的总统。肯尼迪总统努力寻求自由,和平的战后新格局。尽管一上任便遭遇古巴导弹危机和太空危机,肯尼迪总统却能成功地带领美国人走出困境。

其《总统就职演说》中的一句“亲爱的美国人民,不要去问国家能为你做点什么,而应该问你自己能为国家做些什么。”则成为经典中的经典。(“ask”在英语中既有“问”的意思,也有“要求”的意思,因此这是一语双关句,另一种意思是“亲爱的美国人民,不要去要求国家给与,而应该要求你自己为国家贡献。”)

富兰克林·罗斯福(注:美国史上有两位罗斯福总统,两位都有多篇演讲入选。泰迪·罗斯福即大罗斯福总统,富兰克林·罗斯福即小罗斯福总统)的《第一次总统就职演说》(主要针对当时的经济危机)及《国会珍珠港事件演讲:开战宣言》则当选为第三及第四位。这位领导美国人走出经济危机并战胜法西斯主义,使美国成为世界霸主的唯一一位4任总统的轮椅上的铁人,成为美国人心目中最伟大的总统。其入选的伟大演说也是最多的。

不知是否因为上述3位深受美国人的爱戴,《罗斯福总统辞世》《马丁路德·金遇刺》《肯尼迪总统遇刺》这3篇演说也在100强中榜上有名。

100个伟大演说还收录了许多经典之作。如马歇尔的《马歇尔计划》,杜鲁门总统的《杜鲁门主义》,里根总统的《“挑战者”号遇难演说》,卡特(总统)《国家能源计划》。也包括诺贝尔得奖演说,联合国关注艾滋病演说等等。

由于是由美国人投票选出,我们能从投票的结果看出一些有趣的现象。例如希拉里·罗翰·克林顿的演说《女权也是**》名理前茅,有这样的支持度多少也反映了2008年总统大选的形势。而比尔·克林顿,这位以能言善辩著称的总统,居然只有一篇《奥拉荷马州炸弹惨剧追悼会演说》排在可怜的第92位,可见其在美国人心目中的“光辉”形象。乔治·布什(老布什)总统成为唯一一位没有演说入选的总统(20世纪)。所谓有其父必有其子,所以我们对小布什总统错漏百出的滑稽演说也应该见怪不怪了。

所有的演讲都有其特定的社会历史背景。听演讲能更深刻地了解当时社会环境。当然您首先需要对美国史略知一二。如果您不知道70年代的反战浪潮,也就无法理解何为《沉默的大多数》,不知道“水门事件”,也就不清楚尼克松总统为何突然发布《辞职演说》。本人建议,听演讲的同时翻阅一下相关历史资料,有助于更深刻的理解。

完整名单:

1.Martin Luther King, Jr. – I Have A Dream
2.John Fitzgerald Kennedy – Inaugural Address
3.Franklin Delano Roosevelt – First Inaugural Address
4.Franklin Delano Roosevelt – Pearl Harbor Address to the Nation
5.Barbara Charline Jordan – 1976 DNC Keynote Address
6.Richard Milhous Nixon – Checkers
7.Malcolm X – The Ballot or the Bullet
8.Ronald Wilson Reagan – Shuttle ‘Challenger’ Disaster Address
9.John Fitzgerald Kennedy – Houston Ministerial Association
10.Lyndon Baines Johnson – We Shall Overcome
11.Mario Matthew Cuomo – 1984 DNC Keynote Address
12.Jesse Louis Jackson – 1984 DNC Address
13.Barbara Charline Jordan – On the Articles of Impeachment
14.(Gen) Douglas MacArthur – Farewell Address to Congress
15.Martin Luther King, Jr. – I’ve Been to the Mountaintop
16.Theodore Roosevelt – The Man with the Muck-rake
17.Robert Francis Kennedy – Remarks on the Assassination of MLK
18.Dwight David Eisenhower – Farewell Address
19.Thomas Woodrow Wilson – War Message
20.(Gen) Douglas MacArthur – Duty, Honor, Country
21.Richard Milhous Nixon – The Great Silent Majority
22.John Fitzgerald Kennedy – Ich bin ein Berliner
23.Clarence Seward Darrow – Mercy for Leopold and Loeb
24.Russell H. Conwell – Acres of Diamonds
25.Ronald Wilson Reagan – A Time for Choosing
26.Huey Pierce Long – Every Man a King
27.Anna Howard Shaw – Fundamental Principle of a Republic
28.Franklin Delano Roosevelt – The Arsenal of Democracy
29.Ronald Wilson Reagan – The Evil Empire
30.Ronald Wilson Reagan – First Inaugural Address
31.Franklin Delano Roosevelt – First Fireside Chat
32.Harry S. Truman – The Truman Doctrine
33.William Cuthbert Faulkner – Nobel Prize Acceptance Speech
34.Eugene Victor Debs – 1918 Statement to the Court
35.Hillary Rodham Clinton – Women’s Rights are Human Rights
36.Dwight David Eisenhower – Atoms for Peace
37.John Fitzgerald Kennedy – American University Commencement
38.Dorothy Ann Willis Richards – 1988 DNC Keynote Address
39.Richard Milhous Nixon – Resignation Speech
40.Thomas Woodrow Wilson – The Fourteen Points
41.Margaret Chase Smith – Declaration of Conscience
42.Franklin Delano Roosevelt – The Four Freedoms
43.Martin Luther King, Jr. – A Time to Break Silence
44.William Jennings Bryan – Against Imperialism
45.Barbara Pierce Bush – Wellesley College Commencement
46.John Fitzgerald Kennedy – Civil Rights Address
47.John Fitzgerald Kennedy – Cuban Missile Crisis Address
48.Spiro Theodore Agnew – Television News Coverage
49.Jesse Louis Jackson – 1988 DNC Address
50.Mary Fisher – A Whisper of AIDS
51.Lyndon Baines Johnson – The Great Society
52.George Catlett Marshall – The Marshall Plan
53.Edward Moore Kennedy – Truth and Tolerance in America
54.Adlai Ewing Stevenson – Presidential Nomination Acceptance
55.Anna Eleanor Roosevelt – The Struggle for Human Rights
56.Geraldine Anne Ferraro – VP Nomination Acceptance
57.Robert Marion La Follette – Free Speech in Wartime
58.Ronald Wilson Reagan – 40th Anniversary of D-Day Address
59.Mario Matthew Cuomo – Religious Belief and Public Morality
60.Edward Moore Kennedy – Chappaquiddick
61.John Llewellyn Lewis – The Rights of Labor
62.Barry Morris Goldwater – Presidential Nomination Acceptance
63.Stokely Carmichael – Black Power
64.Hubert Horatio Humphrey – 1948 DNC Address
65.Emma Goldman – Address to the Jury
66.Carrie Chapman Catt – The Crisis
67.Newton Norman Minow – Television and the Public Interest
68.Edward Moore Kennedy – Eulogy for Robert Francis Kennedy
69.Anita Faye Hill – To the Senate Judiciary Committee
70.Thomas Woodrow Wilson – League of Nations Final Address
71.Henry Louis (Lou) Gehrig – Farewell to Baseball Address
72.Richard Milhous Nixon – Cambodian Incursion Address
73.Carrie Chapman Catt – Address to the U.S. Congress
74.Edward Moore Kennedy – 1980 DNC Address
75.Lyndon Baines Johnson – On Not Seeking Re-Election
76.Franklin Delano Roosevelt – Commonwealth Club Address
77.Thomas Woodrow Wilson – First Inaugural Address
78.Mario Savio – Sproul Hall Sit-in Speech
79.Elizabeth Glaser – 1992 DNC Address
80.Eugene Victor Debs – The Issue (off site)
81.Margaret Higgins Sanger – The Children’s Era
82.Ursula Kroeber Le Guin – Left-Handed Commencement Address
83.Crystal Eastman – Now We Can Begin (off site)
84.Huey Pierce Long – Share Our Wealth
85.Gerald Rudolph Ford – Address on Taking the Oath of Office
86.Cesar Estrada Chavez – Speech on Ending His 25 Day Fast
87.Elizabeth Gurley Flynn – Statement at the Smith Act Trial
88.Jimmy Earl Carter – A Crisis of Confidence
89.Malcolm X – Message to the Grassroots (off site)
90.William Jefferson Clinton – Oklahoma Bombing Memorial Address
91.Shirley Anita Chisholm – For the Equal Rights Amendment
92.Ronald Wilson Reagan – Brandenburg Gate Address
93.Eliezer (Elie) Wiesel – The Perils of Indifference
94.Gerald Rudolph Ford – Pardoning Richard M. Nixon
95.Thomas Woodrow Wilson – For the League of Nations
96.Lyndon Baines Johnson – Let Us Continue
97.Joseph N. Welch – Have You Left No Sense of Decency
98.Anna Eleanor Roosevelt – The Declaration of Human Rights
99.Robert Francis Kennedy – Day of Affirmation
100.John Forbes Kerry – Vietnam Veterans Against the War

预览:

注:本次整合已现有名单为基本,对缺失的音频或文本进行了添加。部分演讲缺音频。文件详细列表见下文本文档。

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